In this section the history of neurophysiological techniques (EEG, QEEG, ERP) and a historical review on diagnosis and prognosis of ADHD and Depression are presented. The first section describes the history from EEG to QEEG. The second part further elaborates on the EEG as a biomarker or endophenotype, followed by a historical overview of neurophysiological studies in ADHD and depression and an overview of models and theories about the interpretation of EEG and QEEG. Finally, some EEG examples for subtypes can be found such as a Low-Voltage EEG and Beta spindles.
Personalized Medicine for ADHD and Depression
In the recent years Brainclinics has specialized to further explore the use of neurophysiological techniques in predicting treatment outcomes to different treatments such as psychostimulants (e.g. Ritalin), antidepressants (e.g. SSRIs), rTMS for depression and Neurofeedback in ADHD. This development is also called Personalized Medicine. Under the section Personalized Medicine and Neuromodulation, more information can be found on the current status of treatment efficacy in psychiatry and new developments in this area. In the section on ADHD a summary of the current state of research on Personalized Medicine in ADHD to various treatments is provided. In addition an explanatory model is proposed explaining how to interpret these different sub-types and how treatments for ADHD may be further improved based on this knowledge.
In the section on depression the current status of research on Personalized Medicine for Depression is summarized and two subtypes that predict non-response to antidepressant treatments are described. In this section the possibilities for other treatments for these so-called non-responders are also described. Finally, a specific EEG endophenotype associated with non-response to various conventional treatments such as psychostimulants, antidepressants and rTMS, namely the Alpha Peak Frequency individual (iAPF) is described. This endophenotype is described in more detail and suggestions for potential interventions that deserve further development are described.