TDBRAIN Challenge

The goal is to develop clinically actionable biomarkers, that should generalize to ‘unseen’ data, so we have marked 30% of clinical and treatment outcome data as REPLICATION. These are blinded for prospective validation and replication purposes. Interested researchers can share () their diagnostic or treatment-outcome predictions on these REPLICATION data with us, so we can perform a ‘blinded out-of-sample’ validation for them, and post the results on this page, so that reviewers for journals can also consult this independent validation of their algorithms. Conversely, reviewers or editors faced with ‘too good to be true’ claims, can refer researchers to this resource, to perform validations and share them with us for verification and publication. We hope this will accelerate the discovery and validation of clinically actionable biomarkers that we hope will soon benefit patients and improve psychiatric and neurological care in the clinic.

First authorYearOriginal ReferencePrimary OutcomeDiagnostic/PrognosticReplicated?PPVnPPVNPVnNPVR2tFpES (Cohen's d; -=opposite direction)
Krepel et al.2018Arns et al. 2012 Brain Stimul.High fronto-central theta powerprognosticno (X)0.7530.3880.173
Low individual alpha peak frequencyprognosticno (X)0.4480.0540.19
Larger P300prognosticno (X)0.0080.9290.019
Krepel et al.2019Krepel et al. 2019 Psych Med.BDI Anhedonia scaleprognosticyes (V)60.7%80%8.5160.0050.76
Neo-NFFI Opennessprognosticno (X)1.490.227-0.33
Bailey et al.2020Bailey et al. 2019 J Affect DisordEEG theta connectivityprognosticno (X)1.6380.1030.2524
Alpha powerprognosticno (X)0.8510.357
Roelofs et al.2020Corlier et al. 2019 Brain Stimul.Individal alpha peak frequencyprognostic yes (V)0.162/0.0260.022
Nouminous (Dilip Rajeswari)2022TMS remissionprognosticno (X)50%91.7%41%
Van Strien2022Prediction DeprNetdiagnosticyes (V)67%126%61%113.8%
Van Strien2022Prediction EEGNetdiagnosticyes (V)75%140.5%69%128.5%
Van Strien2022Prediction Logistic Regressiondiagnosticno (X)49%91.1%44%82.3%
Alekseichuk, University of Minnesota2023Prediction rTMS over prefrontal cortexprognosticno (X)71%99.328%22.2%