Quantitative ElectroEncephaloGraph = QEEG or Brainmapping
The methodology of the Brain Resource Company is applied to identify neuromarkers or EEG phenotypes in a range of psychiatric disorders such as MCI (Mild Cognitive Impairment), Alzheimer’s, dementia, ADHD, schizophrenia, PTSD, depression, etc. Besides the presence of a wide range of diagnostic groups in the database, it is also important to have a good normative reference frame. Brain Resource Company has a normative database of more than 20,000 healthy subjects and large patient groups (ADHD, depression, etc.) which include Neurophysiological and Neuropsychological (IntegNeuro) data. This makes it possible to determine the specificity (what is unique for a disorder) but also to investigate the effect of comorbidities (interactions). The BRC method is therefore suitable for Personalized Medicine, determining the correct protocol TMS/rTMS in depression, Neurofeedback treatment and Applied Brain Research.
The BRC QEEG Procedure: Clients are assessed (non-invasive) while measuring their brain function. The brain is measured by picking up electrical streams (brain activity) that run over the skull – the so-called QEEG or Quantitative electroencephalogram – added with neuropsychological tests. The following sizes are synchronously recorded during the QEEG Research: 25 channels EEG, skin resistance (SCL, SCR or GSR), brain potentials (QEEG, ERP – Event Related Potentials), derivatives of the autonomic nervous system (ANS: heart rate, respiration) and motor response e.g. reaction time.
While the client is connected, activation tests are assessed, each of which relate to a functional network in the brains. These measurements provide information – with millisecond time resolution – on the processing of this information in the brains. The following specific tests used in the QEEG research:
The subject is asked to sit quietly and focus on the red dot (eyes open) followed by an eyes closed task.
Reflects: A baseline of brain and body measures.
The subject listens passively to auditory stimuli.
Reflects: Brain-body response decrements to novel stimuli, indicative of automatic learning.
The subject is presented with tones and is required to ignore the low tones, and press a response button only when one hears the infrequent high tones.
Reflects: Capacity to process relevant whilst ignoring irrelevant information.
A red dot moves smoothly (horizontally) on the screen at a frequency of 0.4Hz. The subject is required to visually track the dot as it moves.
Reflects: Eye tracking and brain function during an automatic tracking task.
The colour of the word ‘PRESS’ is presented randomly in either red or green. The subject is required to press a response button when they see the word ‘PRESS’ in green, but not to press the button when the word ‘PRESS’ is in red.
Reflects: Capacity for suppressing well-learned, automatic responses.
Conscious and subconscious processing of facial emotions
A series of facial expressions displaying different emotions is presented, which the subject is required to process and rate.
Reflects: Emotion recognition.
Visual working memory
A series of letters is presented on the screen one by one. The subject is required to press a response button if the same letter appears twice in a row.
Reflects: Sustained attention and working memory.
A dot-based maze is presented on the screen. Using a button box, the subject is required to learn to find (by trial and error) a hidden path through the maze.
Reflects: Planning, error correction, visuo-spatial learning and memory.
A series of loud tones are presented, half without warning, half with a pre-pulse.
Reflects: The body’s ‘fight or flight’ response.
Both the brain (QEEG) and neuropsychological tests each take less than an hour and the task instructions are very simple and easy to understand. Including some additional questionnaires and ‘application of the cap’ the assessment takes about 3 hours . All tests are used for all ages, making the database ‘assumption free’, which the natural development of a test on different age can be followed perfectly.
Reliability and validity of these tests is good and were also published.
For a good example of neuromarkers in ADHD you can download a detailed example
Download some examples of QEEG and neuropsychological reports:
BRC has an FDA approval for the 510 K used QEEG hardware and is FDA approved
If you are interested to join our network by managing your own QEEG Lab or IntegNeuroTM,
please contact us directly through firstname.lastname@example.org.